Coronary bypass surgery – What you can expect?

What Is Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery?

Coronary Artery Bypass (CABG) surgery is a standout amongst the most well-known real surgeries performed worldwide. This is a technique for surgery that attempts to enhance blood stream to the heart by making substitute pathways around supply routes that have get to be blocked or limited because of coronary vein disorder. Without this surgery, oxygen and supplements are for the most part not ready to achieve the heart in adequate sums which builds the understanding’s shots of encountering a heart assault.

coronary_artery_bypassA graft is a vein which is utilized to sidestep a blocked blood stream. Typically, graft is taken from the inner mammary blood artery in the midsection, or the saphenous veins from the leg, or in uncommon occasions from the outspread supply route in the arm. The joining is connected above and beneath the zone in the supply route where there is a blockage, so that the blood can utilize the new, unblocked way to stream openly to the heart. Cardiologists take a graft from another piece of the body and afterward append one end of the joining to the aorta and the flip side to the coronary vein underneath the blockage.

Which Patients Need Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery?

The patients with blocked artery disease will need more specific and supreme therapy other than medications and changes in lifestyle. For patients who suffer severe chest pain (angina) or more than 70 % of artery is blocked by plaque obstruction of the coronary arteries, further treatment may involve either enlargement of the coronary arteries by balloon dilatation (PTCA) or bypass surgery.

The cardiologist and cardiac surgeon will decide to give the most appropriate treatment for the patient is. The location, the extent, and the number of obstructions in the arteries often dictate the most appropriate treatment for any particular individual. Patients who have undergone PTCA in the past may require bypass surgery in the future if their coronary disease progresses. Patients who have no symptoms but who have evidence of impaired blood supply to the heart muscle (ischemia) or poor function of the pumping chamber of the heart (left ventricle) may require surgery to improve heart function and prolong survival. This applies particularly to diabetic patients. CABG is also often performed at the same time as a heart valve operation or before other major surgery, such as abdominal aneurysm surgery.

What Should I Expect in the Hospital?

Proper rest after surgery is required as patient is under observation. Nursing facilities to give medications should be available. Risks in the procedure are less and there are less chances of failure but all the emergency options should be available. Hospital staff should be caring and well trained to cater best services.

What Should I Expect After Leaving the Hospital?

Patients should carry proper medication routine and exercises recommended by doctor. Some discomfort is seen after surgery on the incisions but the condition overcomes within 48 hours to 72 hours after surgery.

When Can I Return to Work?

As soon as the patient feels he is alright and energized once again he can be back to normal routine. This takes minimum of 15 – 20 days.

Will the Bypass Surgery Cure my Coronary Artery Disease?

Yes, bypass surgery will help patient to get a active lifestyle as compared to conditions before. The patients get relief for a long haul.

What Follow-Up Care Will I Need?

A regular check up for blockage is needed after surgery, for the grafted blood stream. Get in touch with your cardiologist for better health.

Reference:

http://www.indianhealthguru.com/coronary-artery-bypass-graft-surgery-India-low-cost-advantages.html

http://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/coronary-bypass-surgery/basics/definition/prc-20023680

http://www.healthline.com/health/heart-bypass-surgery#Procedure5

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Cataract Eye Surgery – Is it safe and effective?

What is a cataract?

Eyes are one of the most fragile and vital organ of body. An intensive approach is required to treat the disorders related with them. Cataract is a disease distressing the vision of a person commonly observed in old age but young ones are also susceptible acquiring the disorder if infections of eyes are ignored. Cataract damages the natural lenses of our eye by covering with a thin layer appearing cloudiness. Usually an eye specialist advises the patients to undergo a surgery; methods may vary according to the need and condition of patients.

Two types of cataracts are known

  1. Age related cataract
  2. Congenital cataracts (childhood cataracts)

What Cataract ?

We all are at risk of cataract once we get old, this include 50 % of population getting cataract. Here are causes or reasons to get cataract

  • Age
  • Relatives who have or had cataracts. Genetic disorder (family history)
  • Ionizing radiation exposure
  • Diabetes – people suffering from diabetes are at more risk rather than a normal person. He or she can develop cataract at early age too.
  • Long-term exposure to bright sunlight
  • Statins
  • Crystalline loss of function
  • Significant alcohol consumption
  • Hypertension
  • Obesity
  • Eye infection or previous eye injuries.

What are the symptoms of a cataract?

Cataracts typically develops slowly and cause couple of indications until they recognizably piece light that mean the eyes are unable to see clearly. At the point when side effects are available, they can include:

  1. Vision that is shady, hazy, foggy, or cloudy
  2. Progressive nearsightedness in more senior individuals frequently called “second sight” in light of the fact that in spite of the fact that their separation vision is disintegrating, they might no more need perusing glasses.
  3. Changes in the way you see shading/ colors on the grounds that the stained lens goes about as filters.
  4. Issues driving during the evening, for example, glare from approaching headlights.
  5. Issues with glare during the day.
  6. Twofold vision while looking through the eye with a cataract (like a superimposed picture).
  7. Sudden changes in glasses remedy or glass specifications.

How is a cataract treated?

At the point when symptoms start to show up, you may have the capacity to enhance your vision for some time utilizing new glasses, solid bifocals, amplification, suitable lighting or other visual guides.

After these solutions are not playing important role in viewing, surgery is the option to go with.

Latest techniques are completed in minimum one hour and require only one day stay in hospital; regular check up is necessarily followed by patient and surgeon completing exemplary nursing care to avoid any complication after surgery. The modal operation with advanced technology, in which eliminating damaged natural lens all in one piece and implanting another interocular lens is known as phacoemulsification. This upgraded method uses high skilled ultrasound technology to break the cloud layer, which do not need stitching later on.

Is cataract surgery safe and effective?

Yes, with new technology and methods for cataract surgery are safe and effective.

Most patients will experience vision improvement virtually immediately. It may take a while for the eye to settle down completely. The cut in the eye may occasionally need a stitch – in most cases, however, it is so small that it heals by itself.

No major side effect or complication comes with operation if proper procedure is followed and after care is as per doctor’s advice. Cataract surgery at time also reduces risk of further development of cataract which leads to complete blindness.

Minimally invasive heart surgery – Facts to Know!

What is minimally invasive heart surgery?

A minimal invasive methodology permits access to the heart through smaller cuts and without ceasing the heart, or isolating the breastbone (sternum) and ribcage, or obliging a heart-lung machine to be utilized.

The incisions for heart surgery are about 4 – 5 inches, replacing conventional bigger and deeper cuts of 7 – 8 inches.

imagesTypes of Minimally invasive heart surgery

1.     Minimally Invasive Valve Surgery – Valve surgeries, including valve repairs and valve substitutions, are the most widely recognized sort of minimal invasive surgery, representing 87 percent of all insignificantly intrusive cardiovascular surgeries.
2.     Minimally Invasive CABG Surgery – Minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass graft (MIDCABG) surgery is an alternative for many patients who needs a left internal bypass graft for mammary artery to the left descending artery in anterior.

Also Saphenous (leg) vein harvest is implanted using minmal invasive process.

3.     Off-pump/beating heart bypass surgery – Other procedures include MAZE Procedure for Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation, Multi-Vessel Small Thoracotomy, Single-Vessel Small Thoracotomy, Minimally Invasive Treatment for Atrial Septal Defect (ASD), Minimally Invasive Treatment for Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD), USC Cardiac Electrophysiology Service.
4.     Robot-assisted heart surgery – In this surgery, the precise moves performed in customary open midsection operation are copied by the specialist utilizing mechanical arms, as opposed to his or her hands. In this system, your specialist lives up to expectations at a remote re-assure and perspectives your heart in an amplified top quality 3-D picture on a feature screen.

From the remote re-assure, your specialist’s hand developments are made an interpretation of definitely to the automated arms at the working table, which move also to the human wrist. A second specialist and surgical group helps at the working table, changing surgical instruments appended to the automated arms.

Advantages of Minimally invasive heart surgery

It is most improved technique of the period but this can’t be option for anyone and everyone. Some parameters are to be followed to get best results. Thos depends a lot on patient’s general health conditions. These types of surgeries are offering several benefits in patient’s life suffering with cardiac disorder.

Advantages involves

  • blood loss is less
  • infection is low
  • trauma and pain are reduced
  • hospitalization is less , quick recovery and quicker return to normal activities
  • Smaller, less noticeable scars

Risk factors of minimally invasive heart surgery

Common complications and risks are in every surgery but our experts make sure to lower down these factors.

  • Blood blocks ( clots ) in the legs that may travel to the lungs
  • Blood loss
  • Breathing problems
  • Heart attack or stroke
  • Infection of the lungs, urinary tract, and chest
  • Temporary or permanent brain injury

How Safe and Effective Is this surgery?

The results are precise and harmless. This proves minimal invasive surgery type is very useful, safe and also effective. The advantages of treatment type are well known by every patient undergoing the surgery and are also aware about all risks, but the complication rates are very less.

All to tell is the patient should choose surgeon and place wisely with all possibilities in mind. Surgeon should be skilled and well qualified to operate minimal invasive procedures and familiar with international protocols. The surgery takes two to three days of hospital stay and good nursing services will allow patient to recover more quick.

All together, heart surgery is package with high advantage and satisfaction.

Khloe Kardashian Denies Liposuction Buzz

The Keeping Up With the Kardashians reality star Khloe Kardashian denies the liposuction buzz surrounding her. She is seriously not here for two things first is a gym punching bag and another is her haters. Khloe bashes the rumors that she had undergone liposuction in a Twitter rebuttal few days ago. She felt disgusted about the rumor and considered it a compliment as she has been accused of getting done her liposuction.

She clarified that she works out five days in a week to bust off her ass. The 30-year old reality star also wrote that “Yes this is documented by the paparazzi. I’m assuming if I’ve had any sort of surgery then I would need 6-8 weeks off for any intense workout.”

Kardashian really hits the gym on a routine basis. In April 2015, she showed off her booty while using the two 25-pound weight for doing squats. Previous month, she also revealed her tiny figure in her gym selfie. This really shows the results of her waist training.

Her tweet went out: “Why is it so hard to give credit where credits due? I work my ass off in the gym. Again maybe I should be flattered?!?! Hummmmm,” she added Tuesday. “By the way…. I’m sending this tweet from the gym! Hi hater!!!”

The buzz surrounding Khole’s recent weight loss was the result of liposuction brought her to take it through twitter. According to the star, her hard work and exercise helped her achieve toned body. After the buzz caught wind, some people accused her for going under the knife for losing few pounds. The 30-year old fired back and denied these rumors on her Twitter handle.

The recent rant around Kardashian comes only one week after her elder sister Kim Kardashian slammed about her own rumors. The reality star Kim wrote on Twitter this month as: “Can’t wait till my website is active!”. Kim is expecting her second baby with her husband the rap singer Kanye West. The couple was previously blessed with a baby girl North West. Further she wrote “I’m gonna do live video streaming so every time someone talks s—t I can go blast the f—k outta them.”

References:

  • Pinto et al. Liposuction and VASER. Ibid, 108-110
  • Gottlieb, S. (2004). “Liposuction does not achieve metabolic benefits of weight loss”. BMJ 328 (7454): 1457–1450.
  • Weill Cornell Physicians – Liposuction
  • Hanke, William; Sue Ellen Cox MD, Naomi Kuznets PhD, William P. Coleman III MD (July 2004). “Tumescent Liposuction Report Performance Measurement Initiative: National Survey Results”.
  • Dermatologic Surgery 30 (7): 967–978. doi:10.1111/j.1524-4725.2004.30300.x. PMID 15209785. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
  • Liposuction Information from the FD

LAPAROSCOPIC Vs OPEN Surgery

Overview (LAPAROSCOPIC & OPEN Surgery)

LAPAROSCOPIC Vs OPEN SurgeryThe laparoscopic surgery was introduced in the early 1990s after the success of laparoscopic gallbladder removal. The studies till date have shown that the laparoscopic procedure has less pain and the patient can return to normal activities earlier when compared to the open surgery. The numerous benefits of laparoscopic surgery over the open surgery made us realize that the differences in both types of surgery are measured in days to weeks and not in months.

It is also important to consider that each person is different and so the perception of pain and occupation also differs. However, a patient who undergoes an open splenectomy will return back to work in a week while another patient undergoing the laparoscopic splenectomy will return back to work in six weeks.

What’s the best approach to surgery: LAPAROSCOPIC or open?

If you consider the actual operation performed during both the laparoscopic and open surgery is same, i.e. removal of the spleen. However, considering the time for recovery the laparoscopic surgery is the best approach to surgery. Patients undergoing the laparoscopic surgery have quicker recovery, shorter hospital stay and the cosmetic results are significantly better than the open surgery.

There is no difference in the complication rates between both the open and laparoscopic surgery. The rate of discovery of accessory spleens during both the approach is same. Some experts argue that the laparoscopic approach is better for identifying the accessory spleen due to the magnification presented during this surgery.

Not all patients can undergo a laparoscopic splenectomy because those who have very large spleen need to undergo treatment with an open surgery. The open surgery is quite difficult, has a greater risk for complications as well. Patients who have a normal-sized spleen are considered as a candidate for laparoscopic surgery unless they have other medical conditions like severe lung or heart disease that put them at risk. All in all, about 95% of the patients with normal size spleen will undergo the laparoscopic surgery.

Advantages and Disadvantages:

Open surgery requires a six to eight inch incision to open the abdomen for operation.

Laparoscopic surgery uses multiple smaller incisions, where the smaller instruments and camera called as a laparoscope is inserted through the incisions to perform the surgery.

This approach might require a three inch incision below the belly button.

Although the open surgeries are quite common, nowadays most surgeons prefer performing the laparoscopic surgery. Few surgeons choose the traditional preferred approach to perform surgeries due to some technical issues.

However, there are certain cases in which the laparoscopic procedure may become an open surgery due to unexpected complications. The weight loss and improvements in quality of life are equivalent between both the approaches for long-term results.

Laparoscopic surgery will have less post-operative pain. This approach also has a shorter hospital stay for patients. It has a faster recovery after surgery. This approach also has fewer wound complications like incisional hernias, wound infections and dehiscence. However, this approach also has high rates of bowel obstruction post surgery. It is not suitable for patients who already underwent abdominal surgery, in such a case open surgery will be preferred by the surgeon.

Bottom Line:

It is suggested to discuss with the surgeons about the pros and cons of each type of surgery before making a final decision. This will help your doctor determine the safe and uncomplicated surgery approach as per your medical conditions. Although laparoscopic surgery is the most preferred approach for surgery, but certain medical conditions might put you at greater risk. Hence, in such a case, the surgeon will prefer performing the open surgery to treat your medical condition.x

References:

  • Laparoscopic Surgery as given in “https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laparoscopic_surgery”
  • Journal of Endourology Hans Christian Jacobaeus: Inventor of Human Laparoscopy and Thoracoscopy

Bariatric Surgery Considered Effective for Type 2 Diabetes Patients

Bariatric surgery Overview:

Bariatric Surgery Considered Effective for Type 2 Diabetes PatientsThe bariatric surgery is an operation on the stomach and/or the intestines such that it helps extremely obese patients to lose weight. The bariatric surgery is a great option for people who are unable to lose weight with diet or exercises or for people suffering from serious medical conditions due to obesity.

Bariatric surgery and type 2 diabetes:

Traditionally, the diabetes is viewed as a chronic, relentless diseases. The major treatment goal for diabetes is the delay of the end-organ complications. The bariatric surgery offers a novel end point of either providing a major improvement or complete disease remission.

NEWS! Bariatric surgery considered effective for type 2 diabetic patients:

A recent study published in the JAMA Surgery Journal, states that the bariatric surgery is more effective in treating the type 2 diabetes compared to the lifestyle changes.

The study author general surgeon at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Anita P. Courcoulas said that bariatric surgery with two years of low-level lifestyle resulted in diabetes remission among the obese and diabetic participants than with lifestyle interventions alone.

The study was conducted on two groups of diabetes patients in the age range of 25 to 55 by Courcoulas and her colleagues. The first group was treated with bariatric surgery while the second group was treated with traditional lifestyle changes.

After the completion of three year trial, Courcoulas and her team found that one-third of people who were treated with obesity surgery shows signs of remission. Meanwhile, the second group didn’t show any remission (the disappearance of decrease in some or all the symptoms of the disease). An important thing to observe is that there is a durability of remission over the time.

The type 2 diabetes is characterized by the high blood sugar in the context of insulin resistance and lack of relative insulin. Around 285 million people are diagnosed with the type 2 disease in the year 2014. It is the dysfunction of the pancreas that stops or slows down the production of insulin required to control the glucose level in the blood stream. The absence of insulin results into blood sugar becoming uncontrollable.

Obesity is a major factor in diabetes and the patients who are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes are recommended to lose weight. Most people who successfully lose weight with surgery are more likely to slow or stop the diabetes.

As per the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, about 9% of the US population are suffering from diabetes. It also stated that more than 30% of patients are not aware if they have the condition or not.

Courcoulas has also stressed that they require to carry out more such trials and also wishes to study the current case for a longer time period. This will enable her team to see what the remissions will look like in five years.

Patients with the shortest duration and mildest form of type 2 diabetes and the weight loss surgery were more probable to achieve the complete resolution of type 2 diabetes. The risk of developing diabetes was three times lower for surgically treated patients for ten years. The recovery rates from the diabetes for patients who had undergone the bariatric surgery is three times greater. The anti-diabetic effect of the weight loss surgery is quite long lasting. The clinical trial is enough evidence to state that the bariatric surgery may reduce the mortality in the patients suffering from type 2 diabetes.

However, Dr. Osama Hamdy cautioned both the patients and the doctors to not get overly excited about the results. Dr. Hamdy, the medical director of the Joslin Diabetes Center Obesity Clinical Program, pointed that only a few people in the surgery group had resolution of their diabetes. So people should weigh the benefits, risks and complications before undergoing the bariatric surgery for treating type 2 diabetes.

All in all, the conventional bariatric procedures are used worldwide for treating the type 2 diabetes in relation with the obesity. This surgery is performed by surgeons among the less obese or merely the overweight patients.

References:

Is Tummy Tuck Safe for you? Read it’s Reviews!

What is Tummy Tuck?

diagram-tummy-tuck-1

Tummy tuck also known as abdominoplasty is a cosmetic surgery which is performed to make the abdomen thinner and more firm. In this surgery, the excess skin and fat from the middle and the lower abdomen is removed in order to tighten the muscle of the abdominal wall. Usually, patients with sagging tissues after major weight loss or pregnancy opt for a tummy tuck.

Tummy Tuck: Procedure to know!

The tummy tuck has a vast scope and depending on the extent of this surgery, it may take about 1 to 5 hours for completion. In case of a partial abdominoplasty or a mini-tuck abdominoplasty the surgery may take only 1 to 2 hours. Your surgeon with create a new hole or belly button following this surgery.

The different procedures for a tummy tuck are explained below:

  1. Complete abdominoplasty: In this procedure, your surgeon will make an incision form hip to hip just above the pubic area. Followed by this, another incision is made to free the navel from the surrounding skin. The skin in detached from the abdominal wall thereby reveals the muscle that needs to be tightened. Liposuction is used for refining the transition zones of the abdominal sculpture. A compression garment or a dressing is applied and any excess fluid from the site is drained off.  
  2. Partial abdominoplasty: In this mini tummy tuck, a smaller incision is made by your surgeon. Then the skin and fat from the lower abdomen is detached in a limited fashion from muscle fascia. The skin is stretched down and excess of it is removed. In certain cases, the belly button stalk is divided from the muscle below and it slid down lower on the abdominal wall. Liposuction is used to contour the transition zone and the flap is then stitched back into the place.  
  3. Extended abdominoplasty: This is a complete abdominoplasty along with a lateral thigh lift. The resulting scar extends from the posterior axillary line. The procedure performs all the abdominal contouring and allows the improvement of the waist as well as smoother the contouring of the upper lateral thigh. 
  4. High lateral tension tummy tuck: This is an advanced technique where the procedure will take a little more than four and a half hours to be done. In conventional abdominoplasty the muscles tightens in a vertical line whereas in high lateral tension abdominoplasty, in addition to vertical-line muscle tightening, they are also tightened horizontally. The final result after this surgery is a dramatically flat abdomen with a better defined waistline.
  5. Floating abdominoplasty or FAB technique: This is a latest technique which allows tightening and shaping your abdomen through small incision which isn’t placed near the belly button. The surgeon removes excess skin through the small incision and also detached your belly button temporarily. Then your muscles are tightened and reshaped from sternum to pubic area. The skin is then tightened and your belly button is reattached. Liposuction can also be performed to achieve desired result.
  6. Circumferential abdominoplasty: This is an extended abdominoplasty in addition to a buttock lift. This procedure is also called as belt lipectomy or body lift and the resultant scar runs all the way around your body. Generally, a surgeon will recommend this operation for patients who had undergone recent major weight loss.

Pros and Cons of Tummy Tuck:

Pros:

  1. It helps to restore a flat tummy.
  2. It will give you more youthful looking body.
  3. It will make you look better in swimwear.

Cons:

  1. Weight gain post this surgery may have negative effects on the surgery results.
  2. You will have a scar in the bikini area.
  3. Another pregnancy will influence the surgery results, so it is suggested to wait until you’ve finished having children before undergoing tummy tuck.

The cons and benefits of tummy tuck have been listed above, it is advised to talk with your aesthetic plastic surgeon before undergoing this procedure.

Tummy Tuck: Is it Safe and Why?

Tummy tuck is a very safe procedure with a lower rate for serious complications. Like any other surgery, there are certain risks such as infection or poor scars with tummy tuck. But usually, this surgery is safe and it helps you get flat abdomen and remove the loose skin caused from pregnancy or excess weight loss.

This surgery is considered by people having stretch marks, flab or excess skin in their tummy. Women who are insecure with the shape of their tummy after pregnancy or people who had massive weight loss choose to undergo tummy tuck which will remove the excess fat and tighten their muscles. Most patients who had gone through this surgery report of the improvement in their self-esteem.

References:

  1. http://www.webmd.com/beauty/tummy-tuck/cosmetic-procedures-tummy-tuck
  2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abdominoplasty